Clouded Apollo (gb)Mnemosine (es)Mnemosynefjäril (se) Synonyms: Svart Apollo (se)
Fruhstorfer (1917) - Sweden.
Opheim (1949) - Sweden.
Bryk (1922) - Denmark.
Bryk (1940) - Sweden.
Bryk (1922) - Sweden.
The black and white pattern with two black spots on the forewing and transparent outer part of the forewing is unique for the species. The female also has black spots on the hindwing.
The underside is recognized by black ribbons making it rather similar to Sortåret Hvidvinge (Aporia crateagi) [Black-veined White ~ Hagtornsfjäril] but that one has much stronger marked ribbons leaving a more contrasting impression.
The female has limited hairs on the abdomen and also often shows a yellow line along the side and what seems like a yellow collar.
C and NE Europe through Caucasus, Asia Minor to W Asia.
Transitions-zones between open meadows and forests; moist forest meadows. In many parts a mountain species but in Sweden, for example, also present in Medelpad on the east coast.
In Nordic region all localities are managed to provide the right conditions. Grassing is necessary for the host plants to thrive. In Norway the species also benefits from avalanches clearing the vegetation.
Flying interspersed with gliding in between bushes at a few meters height. When perched can be difficult to see.
During mating the male excretes a substance (spraghi) onto the female that hardens and assures that she can't mate again with another male.
Like the Apollo, it has a curious habit of rubbing the legs against the underwing in situations where it feels threatened and thereby creating a rasping loud sound to scare away eventual predators.
Extinct in Denmark 1961, Jægerspris Nordskov. Also critically endangered in the other Scandinavian countries.